端午习俗

Traditions of Duan Wu

端午节的传统美食文化

Traditional Food Culture

农历五月初五是传统节日——端午节,迄今已有2000多年的历史。说起端午节的食俗,很多人的第一反应就是吃粽子。但是你知道吗,在很多地方,端午节不仅要吃粽子,还有特殊的节令食物。这些美食在千百年的文化传承与演变中,虽口味有所改变,但始终饱含着人们那份期待生活安康的心情,始终藏着人们浓浓的思乡之情。

Duan Wu Festival is a traditional celebration which falls on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month with more than 2000 years of history. The first thing that comes to mind, when we think of traditional foods associated with this festival would be Zong Zi or rice dumplings. However, did you know, that there are many other special seasonal treats to be enjoyed in many different places during this festival? As time passes, these delicious treats may have changed with the passing down of culture and tradition through time. However, even if the taste have changed, the hopes for a stable livelihood and the longing for home embodied within will be ever present.

娘惹传统美食 Traditional Nyonya Bak Chang

用蝶豆花将糯米染成淡蓝色,用本地特色香料翻炒馅料,再加上鲜香的肉块和入口即化的冬瓜糖,这拥有着咸中带甜,甜中微辣的奇妙味道的蓝色粽子正是新马一带的华人们独有的蓝花娘惹粽。

The glutinous rice is first dyed a delicate blue using blue pea flower, then the filling is stir fried with local spices. Together with aromatic pieces of meat and candied winter melon, this makes the quintessential sweet and salty bluish tinged Nyonya Bak Chang found only in the Singapore – Malaysian region.

福建闽南“烧肉粽” Fujian Minnan Sio Bak Chang

烧肉粽是福建特有的地方传统名吃,起源于福建泉州。肉粽以香菇、虾米、芋头粒、栗子、猪肉(或鸡肉)、糯米 等为原料,制作时用卤汁和猪油翻炒糯米至半熟,再与卤猪肉、咸蛋黄、炒虾米、炒栗子等馅料混合,最后才用箬叶包裹成形。精工细作之下的烧肉粽香甜嫩滑,油润不腻。

This is a rice dumpling unique to Quanzhou in Fujian. Mushrooms, dried shrimp, yam cubes, chestnuts, pork (or chicken) and glutinous rice are used as their main ingredients. The glutinous rice is stir fried with braising liquid and pork lard till half cooked, then filled with braised pork, salted egg yolk, fried dried shrimp, chestnuts and so on before they are wrapped with bamboo leaves and cooked to aromatic perfection.

潮汕名吃“双拼粽” Chaoshan Rice Dumpling

潮汕人俗称“粽”为“粽球”,潮汕话“粽”与“壮”同音,所以端午节男女老少都吃粽求个“壮”的好彩头。讲究咸甜平衡的滋味的双拼粽是潮汕人独有的美味。半肥半瘦的猪肉,咸香的蛋黄,软软甜甜的红豆沙,大颗大颗的花生,清香的莲子,这一半咸味馅料一半甜味馅料混合而出的咸中带甜,甜中有咸的滋味在烹煮过程中,慢慢渗透入糯米里,增添粽子的鲜香。

In Chaoshan, rice dumplings ‘Zong’ have a similar pronunciation as ‘robust’. Hence, man, woman, young and old will eat rice dumplings for this symbolism during Duan Wu Festival. Chaoshan’s rice dumplings are known for its unique balance of sweet and savory, with fillings of pork, salted egg yolk, sweet red bean paste, peanuts and lotus seeds, which permeates throughout the glutinous rice as they are slowly cooked to enhance the flavour of the dumplings.

广东客家风味“咸肉粽” Cantonese and Hakka Rice Dumplings

广东和客家的咸肉粽,主要材料和福建烧肉粽一样,也是猪肉、冬菇、咸蛋黄和虾米;但广东人会多加一些花生粉和绿豆沙,有时还加入瑶柱、干贝、腊肠,甚至叉烧;客家人则加入花生碎、萝卜干和蒜头粒,有时也会加入少许红豆。

Both Cantonese and Hakka rice dumplings have the same main ingredients as the Fujian ones – pork, mushrooms, salted egg yolk and dried shrimp. However the Cantonese will add in some peanut powder and green bean paste, and sometimes even conpoy, dried scallops, Chinese sausage or barbeque pork. The Hakkas on the other hand, will add crushed peanuts, preserved radish, garlic and even red beans.

江浙“五黄餐” Zhejiang ‘Wu Huang Can’

在杭州、嘉兴等地,民间在端午节吃“五黄”的食俗由来已久。“五黄餐”是指把五种黄颜色的食物混在一起吃,通常有黄鱼、黄鳝、黄瓜、咸蛋黄及雄黄酒。中医理论认为,端午节是一年中阳气最盛的时候,可利用端午节气的力量,抑制霉运、提升自己的精力。

In Hangzhou, Jiaxing and some other places, people practise eating ‘Wu Huang’ or ‘Five Yellow Dish’ during Duan Wu Festival. This dish comprises of five different yellow coloured ingredients like yellow croaker, eel, cucumber, salted egg yolk and realgar wine. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, it is said that Duan Wu Festival occurs at the time of the year when Yang energy is most prevalent and hence this energy should be harnessed to ward off bad luck and increase vitality.

温州“薄饼” Wenzhou ‘Bo Bing’

温州地区,端午节家家还有吃薄饼的习俗。采用精白面粉调成糊状,在又大又平的铁煎锅中,烤成一张张形似圆月,薄如绢帛的半透明饼,然后用绿豆芽、韭菜、肉丝、蛋丝、香菇等作馅,卷成圆筒状,一口咬下去,多层次的丰富口感让人回味无穷。

In Wenzhou, every family follows the tradition of eating Bo Bing during Duan Wu Festival. A batter is made from flour and pieces of round, thin, translucent crepes are made on a big flat griddle. Beansprouts, Chinese chives, strips of meat, egg and mushrooms are placed on a piece of crepe and rolled up into a cylindrical shape, with each bite giving you multiple layers of flavour that fully saturates your taste buds.

江西“立蛋” Jiangxi ‘Li Dan’

在江西一带,人们有端午节吃茶叶蛋和咸鸭蛋的习俗,并且喜欢在煮好的蛋壳上涂上红色,再用五颜六色的网袋装起来,挂在小孩子的脖子上,祝福孩子逢凶化吉、平安无事。

In Jiangxi, there is a custom of eating tea eggs and salted eggs during Duan Wu Festival. They also like to dye cooked eggs a red colour and put them in colourful mesh bags, then hang them around the necks of little children to ward off bad luck and keep them safe.

民俗活动

Customs of Duan Wu

来源:搜狐网、环球网、新华视点、百度百科

端午节,中国四大传统节日之一,是集祈福攘灾、欢庆娱乐和饮食为一体的民俗大节。2009年9月,联合国教科文组织正式批准将其列入《人类非物质文化遗产代表作名录》,端午节成为中国首个入选世界非遗的节日。

Duan Wu Festival is one of the four major traditional celebrations in China that combines prayers, entertainment and food in one. In September 2009, Duan Wu Festival became the first Chinese festival to be officially inscribed by UNESCO into the “Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity”.

端午节的文化内涵丰富,你对端午节的了解有多少呢?

How much do you know about the rich traditions of Duan Wu Festival?

扒龙舟 Dragon boat racing

一项多人集体划桨的比赛,是端午节的重要活动,是古代龙图腾祭祀的节仪,至今在我国南方沿海一带仍十分流行。目的是通过祭祀图腾——龙,以祈求避免常见的水旱之灾。

A race whereby a team made of many crew paddle to the finish, dragon boat racing is a very important part of Duan Wu Festival. It began as a ceremonial totem worship of the Dragon and is still popular in the southern coastal parts of our country. This totem worship is said to prevent the occurrence of floods.

拜神祭祖 Ancestral worship

祭祖是一种传承孝道的习俗。按照民间的观念,自己的祖先和天、地、神、一样是应该认真顶礼膜拜的。尘世的人要通过祭祀来祈求和报答他们的庇护和保佑。

Ancestral worship is a form of filial piety, which dictates that genuflection to one’s ancestors, Heaven, Earth and the Gods should be carried out in exchange for and in appreciation of their blessings and protection.

挂艾草与菖蒲 Hanging of Mugwort and Calamus

民间认为艾草有辟邪、招百福的作用,端午期间挂艾草于门上,相沿成习,遂成端午风俗。今南北各地均有端午挂艾草习俗。

It is believed that Mugwort has the ability to ward off evil and bring good fortune. Hence hanging of Mugwort on doors become common practice and a custom associated with Duan Wu. This is still being practiced in many places in the North and South.

放纸鸢 Kite Flying

在中国南方一带城市,端午节放风筝也是一种习俗。它是一种玩具,在竹篾等骨架上糊上纸或绢,拉着系在上面的长线,趁着风势可以放上天空,属于一种单纯利用空气动力的飞行器。

In the south, kite flying is also a custom associated with Duan Wu Festival. Made by gluing paper or silk onto frames made of bamboo strips, lengths of string are attached to these contraptions and flown into the air by harnessing the forces of the wind through understanding of aerodynamics.

画额 Drawing on forehead

端午节时以雄黄涂抹小儿额头的习俗,可驱避毒虫。典型的方法是用雄黄酒在小儿额头画“王”字。

The custom of dabbing children’s foreheads with realgar is supposed to be effective in warding off poisonous insects. This is typically done by writing the Chinese character representing ‘King’ on their foreheads with realgar wine.

打午时水 Drawing of water at noon

端午节"打午时水”是盛行于南方沿海一带的传统习俗,打午时水即是端午当天中午11点到13点之间在井里打水,古人把打上来的午时水视为大吉水,这个时候的水是最能辟邪。

The tradition of drawing water at noon is a popular custom practiced in areas along the northern coast. Water drawn from wells between 11am to 1pm on Duan Wu Festival was considered to be very auspicious, which is most effective for warding off evil.

栓五色丝线 Tying of five-coloured bracelets

中国古代崇敬五色,以五色为吉祥色。端午节时,家家户户都要在孩子手腕上带上五彩绳,就是用红、黄、蓝、绿、紫五种彩线编成的线绳,以辟邪驱瘟、逢凶化吉。

In ancient china, the five colours were highly revered as they are considered to represent  auspiciousness. During Duan Wu Festival, families use red, yellow, blue, green and purple threads to make five-coloured bracelets which are worn on children’s wrists to ward off evil, plague and misfortune.

避五毒 Warding off the Five Poisons

端午在古代北方人心目中是毒日,在民间信仰中这个思想一直传了下来,所以有了避五毒的习俗。五毒是指蜈蚣、毒蛇、蝎子、壁虎和蟾蜍,端午节避五毒用意是提醒人们要防害防病。

Duan Wu Festival was considered a day of poison in ancient time by the people in northern China, which gave rise to the practice of warding off the five poisons – namely the centipede, the snake, the scorpion, the lizard and the toad. In essence, it was a reminder for people to take precaution against diseases during Duan Wu Festival.

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