世界掠影

Duan Wu – Around the World

韩国江陵端午祭

韩国的端午祭,与我们华人传统中的五月初五吃粽子、划龙舟、纪念屈原的端午节完全不同,并不是特指某个时间的一个节日,而是发生在播种结束之后的5月,祭拜山神和土地神,祈求风调雨顺的一系列祭祀活动。整个祭祀活动可长达20多天,甚至一个月。

韩国现在唯一完整保留端午习俗的是韩国江陵地区。江陵市在端午时节特有的巫俗祭祀活动 - 江陵端午祭,是韩国最著名文化庆典之一,且在2005年11月25日被世界教科文组织指定为人类口头和无形遗产。

江陵端午祭,来自神话传说,被神化的人物有十二位之多,如金庾信、国师城隍“梵日国师”、大关岭国师女城隍郑家女等。端午祭活动包含了丰富的内容,除了举办多种祭祀仪式外,当地还会组织很多其它的活动,比如摔跤、荡秋千、拔河、射箭等比赛,还有精彩的巫俗表演、假面舞、烟火表演、端午放灯等活动。

保存了完整的形式和内容的繁琐的祭祀仪式则是整个韩国江陵端午祭的核心。如果从迎神的“前夜祭”算起,一般要举行五个昼夜;如果从“山神祭”算起到送神止,时间长达20多天;如果从“谨酿神酒”算起,则长达一个月的时间。每年的农历四月初五,人们用江陵旧官府“七事堂”发放的大米和米曲子酿制神酒,准备端午祭时敬神和饮用,也以此拉开了端午祭的帷幕;四月十五日,举行“大关岭山神祭”和“国师城隍祭”,祭祀结束后,锯一段神木,人们将青红礼缎挂在上面,然后在神木的引导下,组成迎神行列。农历五月初三傍晚时分,人们回到江陵国师女城隍祠接受“奉安祭”,也就是端午祭的“前夜祭”。祭祀结束后,人们将大关岭山神和国师城隍牌位送往南大川露天祭场。从五月初四到初七,每天早晨则会举行“朝奠祭”。

江陵端午祭的祭祀仪式分“儒教式祭仪”和“巫俗祭仪”两种。儒教式祭仪以奉读汉文祝祷词的形式进行,祝祭的内容涉及除祸招福、健康安宁、治愈疾病、农渔丰收、禽畜繁盛等。儒祭之后,开始伴随歌舞戏剧表演进行的“巫俗祭仪”,直至深夜。

端午祭时节,在江陵,家家户户都会摆上散发着艾草和糯米香味的艾子糕,用艾饼、松皮饼祭祖先,并用菖蒲水洗头求吉利。妇女们也会用菖蒲露化妆,称为“菖蒲妆”;士大夫人家的门柱上则贴朱砂符借以避邪;君臣之间要互赠端午扇表示祝贺。

South Korea – Gangneung Danoje

Unlike the Chinese Duan Wu Festival where the tradition of dumpling eating, dragon boat racing and commemorating Qu Yuan happens on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, South Korea’s Danoje happens in May after the sowing season has ended. Sacrificial ceremonies, which can last from 20 days to 1 month, are held to pay homage to the mountain and earth deities to pray for peace, prosperity and good harvest.

Currently, only the Gangneung region has preserved the tradition of celebrating Danoje. The Gangneung Danoje has become one of the most famous cultural celebrations in Korea and has been designated as part of South Korea's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO on November 25, 2005.

Gangneung Danoje has its origins rooted in mythology, which has as many as 12 deities like Kim Yushin, Daegwanryeong Guksa Seonghwang and so on. The celebration includes a plethora of events such as sacrificial ceremonies, wrestling, playing on swings, tug-of-war, archery, as well as folk performances, traditional mask dances, fireworks and lantern displays.

Preserving the elaborate and complex sacrificial ceremonies in their entirety is the core of the Gangneung Danoje. Danoje begins with prayers for 5 days and nights to the deities, followed by another 20 days or so of ceremonies and rituals before the deities are sent off in a farewell ceremony. If we were to include the brewing of a sacred liquor right before the start of the Danoje, this would extend the entire festival to about 1 month. Every year on the fifth day of the fourth lunar month, people will use rice and yeast to brew the sacred liquor to offer to the deities and for drinking, signifying the start of the Festival. The first Festival rites then take place on the fifteenth day of the fourth lunar month whereby people tie ceremonial red green sashes on a divine log and march in a parade to pay homage to the Daegwallyeong Mountain God's Shrine and State Preceptor's Goddess Shrine. On the evening of the third day of the fifth lunar month, the deities are escorted to the ceremonial grounds at Namdaecheon. From the fourth day to the seventh day of the fifth lunar month, ceremonies are also conducted every morning to honour the deities.

Gangneung Danoje combines both Confucian and Shamanism ceremonies. The Confucian ceremonies focuses on reading of blessings for the people, and asking for health and stability, curing of sicknesses and good harvest for crops and livestock. Following that, the Shamanism elements are reflected through the song and dance performances that go on till late night.

During Danoje, it is common for every household to prepare fragrant rice cakes made with mugwort and glutinous rice as offerings to their ancestors, as well as use sweet flag-infused water for washing hair while ladies use it in their makeup. Scholars put up cinnabar symbols to ward off evil, while the nobility exchange Dano fans as gifts.