世界掠影

Duan Wu – Around the World

​新加坡欢度端午节活动

来源:新加坡,心想狮城

慷慨激昂的击鼓声和美味诱人的粽子使端午节 (农历五月初五) 成为广受欢迎的新加坡节日之一。

特色活动

龙舟节期间,糯米粽子是最受人们喜爱的一款民间美食,清香的班兰叶包裹着丰富多样的馅料,做成了一个个三角形的粽子。“bak zhang” 以猪肉、荸荠和蘑菇为馅料,是粽子中很受欢迎的一种。而另一种娘惹(土生华人)粽子则以焖猪肉、五香粉和糖渍冬瓜为馅料。“Kee zhang'” 除糯米外不添加别的馅料,常常被当做甜点,沾以白糖或椰糖(gula melaka,马来族称为棕榈糖)糖浆食用。

好去处

勿洛蓄水池

世界各地的龙舟队从各处赶来,参加一年一度的新加坡龙舟赛盛会。每支龙舟队由 22 名运动健将组成,在这场激烈的比赛中,您将亲眼目睹选手们手握划桨,劈波斩浪,相竞争先的精彩场面。

加冷河

周末,可以在这里观赏到各家龙舟俱乐部奋勇训练的场景。您也可以亲身参与这项运动,尝尝奋力划桨的滋味 — 没什么比亲自体验一把的感觉更棒了!

DBS 滨海赛艇会

滨海湾水域将举办的水上运动庆典,各项精彩比赛不容错过。除了龙舟赛,还有其他游戏和活动项目,定会为您和家人带来乐趣。 

韩国江陵端午祭

韩国的端午祭,与我们华人传统中的五月初五吃粽子、划龙舟、纪念屈原的端午节完全不同,并不是特指某个时间的一个节日,而是发生在播种结束之后的5月,祭拜山神和土地神,祈求风调雨顺的一系列祭祀活动。整个祭祀活动可长达20多天,甚至一个月。

韩国现在唯一完整保留端午习俗的是韩国江陵地区。江陵市在端午时节特有的巫俗祭祀活动 - 江陵端午祭,是韩国最著名文化庆典之一,且在2005年11月25日被世界教科文组织指定为人类口头和无形遗产。

江陵端午祭,来自神话传说,被神化的人物有十二位之多,如金庾信、国师城隍“梵日国师”、大关岭国师女城隍郑家女等。端午祭活动包含了丰富的内容,除了举办多种祭祀仪式外,当地还会组织很多其它的活动,比如摔跤、荡秋千、拔河、射箭等比赛,还有精彩的巫俗表演、假面舞、烟火表演、端午放灯等活动。

保存了完整的形式和内容的繁琐的祭祀仪式则是整个韩国江陵端午祭的核心。如果从迎神的“前夜祭”算起,一般要举行五个昼夜;如果从“山神祭”算起到送神止,时间长达20多天;如果从“谨酿神酒”算起,则长达一个月的时间。每年的农历四月初五,人们用江陵旧官府“七事堂”发放的大米和米曲子酿制神酒,准备端午祭时敬神和饮用,也以此拉开了端午祭的帷幕;四月十五日,举行“大关岭山神祭”和“国师城隍祭”,祭祀结束后,锯一段神木,人们将青红礼缎挂在上面,然后在神木的引导下,组成迎神行列。农历五月初三傍晚时分,人们回到江陵国师女城隍祠接受“奉安祭”,也就是端午祭的“前夜祭”。祭祀结束后,人们将大关岭山神和国师城隍牌位送往南大川露天祭场。从五月初四到初七,每天早晨则会举行“朝奠祭”。

江陵端午祭的祭祀仪式分“儒教式祭仪”和“巫俗祭仪”两种。儒教式祭仪以奉读汉文祝祷词的形式进行,祝祭的内容涉及除祸招福、健康安宁、治愈疾病、农渔丰收、禽畜繁盛等。儒祭之后,开始伴随歌舞戏剧表演进行的“巫俗祭仪”,直至深夜。

端午祭时节,在江陵,家家户户都会摆上散发着艾草和糯米香味的艾子糕,用艾饼、松皮饼祭祖先,并用菖蒲水洗头求吉利。妇女们也会用菖蒲露化妆,称为“菖蒲妆”;士大夫人家的门柱上则贴朱砂符借以避邪;君臣之间要互赠端午扇表示祝贺。

South Korea – Gangneung Danoje

Unlike the Chinese Duan Wu Festival where the tradition of dumpling eating, dragon boat racing and commemorating Qu Yuan happens on the fifth day of the fifth lunar month, South Korea’s Danoje happens in May after the sowing season has ended. Sacrificial ceremonies, which can last from 20 days to 1 month, are held to pay homage to the mountain and earth deities to pray for peace, prosperity and good harvest.

Currently, only the Gangneung region has preserved the tradition of celebrating Danoje. The Gangneung Danoje has become one of the most famous cultural celebrations in Korea and has been designated as part of South Korea's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO on November 25, 2005.

Gangneung Danoje has its origins rooted in mythology, which has as many as 12 deities like Kim Yushin, Daegwanryeong Guksa Seonghwang and so on. The celebration includes a plethora of events such as sacrificial ceremonies, wrestling, playing on swings, tug-of-war, archery, as well as folk performances, traditional mask dances, fireworks and lantern displays.

Preserving the elaborate and complex sacrificial ceremonies in their entirety is the core of the Gangneung Danoje. Danoje begins with prayers for 5 days and nights to the deities, followed by another 20 days or so of ceremonies and rituals before the deities are sent off in a farewell ceremony. If we were to include the brewing of a sacred liquor right before the start of the Danoje, this would extend the entire festival to about 1 month. Every year on the fifth day of the fourth lunar month, people will use rice and yeast to brew the sacred liquor to offer to the deities and for drinking, signifying the start of the Festival. The first Festival rites then take place on the fifteenth day of the fourth lunar month whereby people tie ceremonial red green sashes on a divine log and march in a parade to pay homage to the Daegwallyeong Mountain God's Shrine and State Preceptor's Goddess Shrine. On the evening of the third day of the fifth lunar month, the deities are escorted to the ceremonial grounds at Namdaecheon. From the fourth day to the seventh day of the fifth lunar month, ceremonies are also conducted every morning to honour the deities.

Gangneung Danoje combines both Confucian and Shamanism ceremonies. The Confucian ceremonies focuses on reading of blessings for the people, and asking for health and stability, curing of sicknesses and good harvest for crops and livestock. Following that, the Shamanism elements are reflected through the song and dance performances that go on till late night.

During Danoje, it is common for every household to prepare fragrant rice cakes made with mugwort and glutinous rice as offerings to their ancestors, as well as use sweet flag-infused water for washing hair while ladies use it in their makeup. Scholars put up cinnabar symbols to ward off evil, while the nobility exchange Dano fans as gifts.

越南杀虫节

原标题:聊一聊你不知道的端午节

来源:人民日报、文汇报、新华网等

在越南,在越南被称为“杀虫节”。因为端午时届年中,天气换季容易出现病疫,因此越南父母让子女食西瓜、芒果、李子、煮鸡蛋和饮椰汁,大人饮雄黄酒,并将雄黄涂在小孩头、额、胸、脐各处以除病杀虫逐虫。越南许多地区的孩子用指甲草涂染手指和脚趾,佩戴由巫师用五色线绳编制的符以辟邪。生育少或有体弱多病幼儿的家庭,节前清晨给幼儿穿上这样的衣服,以辟鬼邪。端午采药是特别重视的民俗活动,认为药草在五月五日采集最有药效,这天药市兴旺。值得一提的是,越南的粽子是用芭蕉叶包裹的,有圆形和方形两种,取天圆地方之意。他们认为,圆形粽子代表天,方形粽子代表地,天地合一,大吉大利。越南粽子包有糯米、绿豆、猪肉和胡椒粉,味道十分独特。

日本男性节

原标题:聊一聊你不知道的端午节

来源:人民日报、文汇报、新华网等

在日本,端午节被视为男性的节日。通常在室外挂鲤鱼旗,室内摆设武士人偶。鲤鱼旗由七色彩旗和红黑两色的“真鲤”“绯鲤”组成,红色代表母亲、黑色代表父亲、青蓝色代表男孩,青蓝旗的个数代表男孩人数。旗子会在蔚蓝的天空里迎风飘动,表示鲤鱼跳龙门之意。日本端午节重视菖蒲,有菖蒲酒、菖蒲浴、菖蒲枕,以菖蒲作为驱除恶魔的节物,称为“五月饰”。菖蒲在日本不单有辟邪的作用,其剑状的外形令人联想到斩妖除魔,加上其在日语中的读音与“尚武”、“胜负”相同,更是勇武的象征。粽子与槲叶糕是日本端午节节日食品,关西地区多吃粽子,而槲叶糕则多见于关东地区。粽子在日本古代称为“茅卷”,最初用茅叶包裹,呈圆锥形,后来又出现以菖蒲叶、竹叶、芦苇叶等包裹的粽子。之所以吃槲叶糕,是因为槲树叶在长出嫩叶前,老叶子不会凋落,也就蕴含了子孙繁荣的美好寓意。日本也在端午这天采药,称为“药狩”。